An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to 2022 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

16011 entries, 14068 authors and 1941 subjects. Updated: June 22, 2024

Browse by Publication Year 1690–1699

58 entries
  • 2146

Der rechte und warhafftige Feldscher.

Frankfurt & Leipzig: M. Rohrlach, 1690.

Purmann was a skilful army surgeon – one of the most famous of the period. Despite this he believed in the efficacy of the weapon-salve and the sympathetic powder.

  • 1727

Erörterung und Erläuterung der Frage: Ob es ein gewiss Zeichen wenn, eines todten Kindes Lunge im Wasser untersincket, dass solches in MutterLeiber gestorben sey? Zu Rettung seiner Ehre in Druck befördert.

Zeitz, Germany: J. H. Ammersbachen, 1690.

Swammerdam’s discovery that the fetal lungs will float on water if respiration has taken place was first put to practical use by Schreyer, who thereby secured the acquittal of a girl accused of infanticide.

Subjects: Forensic Medicine (Legal Medicine)
  • 4967

An essay concerning humane understanding.

London: Eliz. Holt, for Thomas Basset, 1690.

Locke, a physician, laid the foundation of modern psychology. For two centuries the principles laid down by him were unquestioned. The writing of the Essay occupied him on and off for twenty years.

  • 6149

Die Chur-Brandenburgische Hoff-Wehe-Mutter.

Cölln an der Spree: U. Liebperten, 1690.

With Mauriceau, Justine Siegemundin was responsible for introducing the practice of puncturing the amniotic sac to arrest hemorrhage in placenta praevia. She was midwife to the Court of the Elector of Brandenburg, and the most celebrated of the German midwives of the 17th century.

Subjects: OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › OBSTETRICS, OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › OBSTETRICS › Midwives, WOMEN in Medicine & the Life Sciences, Publications About, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1500 - 1799
  • 10055

A letter to a friend, upon occasion of the death of his intimate friend.

London: Printed for Charles Brome, 1690.

One of the most eloquent and learned discussions of death. Full annotated text from at this link.

Subjects: DEATH & DYING, LITERATURE / Philosophy & Medicine & Biology
  • 11472

Florae Lugduno-Batavae flores sive enumeratio stirpium horti Lugduno-Batavi methodo, naturae vestigiis isistente, dispositarum, & anno 1689 in lectionibus tam publicis quam privatis expositarum a Paulo Hermann. Nunc vero in gratiam botanophilorum primum in lucem editarum opera Lothari Zumbach.

Leiden: Frederic Haaring, 1690.

In this treatise on the flowering plants in the Hortus Botanicus Leiden Hermann coined the term Angiospermae as the name of one of his primary divisions of the plant kingdom. This division included flowering plants possessing seeds enclosed in capsules, distinguished from what Hermann named "Gymnospermae, or flowering plants with achenial or schizo-carpic fruits, the whole fruit or each of its pieces being here regarded as a seed and naked" (Wikipedia article on Flowering plant, accessed 1-2020). Hermann used the term "Angiopolyspermae" on p. 1 of this work. Digital facsimile from Bayerische StaatsBibliothek at this link.

Subjects: BOTANY › Angiosperms, BOTANY › Botanical Gardens, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Netherlands
  • 13406

Introductio generalis in rem herbariam.

Leipzig: Christoph. Günther, 1690.

Rivinus (Bachmann) introduced the concept of classification of plants based upon the structure of the flower.  He also introduced the ORDER as a distinct rank of biological classification having its own distinctive name (and not just called a higher genus (genus summum)). Rivinus developed and explained his classification system in the following extensively illustrated treatises:

Ordo Plantarum qvae sunt Flore Irregulari Monopetalo. Lipsiae: Typis Christoph. Fleischeri, 1690.
Ordo Plantarum qvae sunt Flore Irregulari Tetrapetalo. Lipsiae: Typis Christoph. Fleischeri, 1691.
Ordo Plantarum qvae sunt Flore Irregulari Pentapetalo. Lipsiae: Typis Joh. Heinrici Richteri, 1699.

Digital facsimile from at this link.

Subjects: BOTANY › Classification / Systemization of Plants
  • 386

Anatomia per uso et intelligenza del disegno ricercata non solo su gl’ossi, e muscoli del corpo humano.

Rome: G. J. de Rossi, 1691.

Contains 56 copper-plates, excellent anatomically and artistically, with commentary by Giovanni Maria Lancisi. This is one of the finest of all books on anatomy for artists. English translation with plates re-engraved, London: Senex, [1723].

Subjects: ANATOMY › 17th Century, ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration, ANATOMY › Anatomy for Artists, ART & Medicine & Biology
  • 387

Osteologia nova, or some new observations of the bones.

London: S. Smith, 1691.

Havers discovered the Haversian canals and made important observations of the physiology of bone growth and repair. The Haversian lamellae, glands, and folds, are also named after him. The Haversian canals were observed by van Leeuwenhoek in 1686.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 17th Century, ORTHOPEDICS › Muskuloskeletal System › Physiology of Bone Formation
  • 1213

Adenographia curiosa et uteri foeminei anatome nova.

Leiden: apud Jordanum Luchtmans, 1691.

Description of the “canal of Nuck”.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 17th Century, Genito-Urinary System
  • 2728

Pulsus mira inconstantia.

Misc. cur. Ephem. nat. cur. Norimbergae, 10, 115-18, 1691, 1692.

First reported case of temporary cardiac arrest with syncopal attacks, the syndrome to which the names of Stokes (No. 2756) and Adams (No. 2745) were later attached.

  • 6798

Lexicon medicum etymologicum.

Caen: J. Briard, 1691.

Subjects: Dictionaries, Biomedical › Lexicography, Biomedical
  • 264

Observationes circa viventia, quae in rebus non viventibus reperiuntur. Cum micrographia curiosa siue Rerum minutissimarum obseruationibus, quæ ope microscopij recognitæ ad viuum exprimuntur. His accesserunt aliquot animalium testaceorum icones non antea in lucem editae. Omnia curiosorum naturæ exploratorum vtilitati & iucunditati expressa & oblata.

Rome: Dominici Antonii Herculis, 1691.

Illustrates several early microscopes, including the famous microscopes of the Bolognese Joseph Campani. Contradicting Redi, Bonanni tried to show that spontaneous generation was possible in animals "without blood and a heart." Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.

Subjects: BIOLOGY, Microscopy
  • 7579

Observationum anatomico-chirurgicarum centuria. Accedit catalogus rariorum quae in Museo Ruyschiano asservantur.

Amsterdam: apud Henricum & Viduam Theodore Boom, 1691.

Includes Ruysch's catalogue of the extent of his medical museum in 1691. Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.

Subjects: MUSEUMS › Medical, Anatomical & Pathological
  • 11185

The wisdom of God manifested in the works of the creation.

London: Printed for Samuel Smith, 1691.

Digital facsimile of the much-enlarged 1692 second edition from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: RELIGION & Medicine & the Life Sciences › Natural Theology
  • 12692

Le vie de monsieur Descartes. [par Adrien Baillet].

Paris: Daniel Horthemels, 1691.

An early separately published biography of a contributor to the history of the life sciences. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works) › Biographies of Individuals, PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology
  • 3352

Surdus loquens; seu, methodus, quâ qui surdus natus est loqui descere possit.

Amsterdam, 1692.

English translation, 1694, by John Wallis (see No. 3348).

Subjects: OTOLOGY › Deaf-Mute Education
  • 12982

Le cabinet de la Bibliothèque de Sainte-Geneviève. Divisé en deux parties. Contenant les antiquitez de la religion des Chrétiens, des Egyptiens, & des Romains, des tombeaux, des poids & des medailles; des monnoyes, des pierres antiques gravées, & des minéraux; des talismans, des lampes antiques, des animaux les plus rares et les plus singuliers, des coquilles les plus considérables, des fruits étrangers, & quelques plantes exquises.

Paris: Antoine Dezallier, 1692.

Father Du Molinet's "cabinet" incorporated the major part of Fabri de Peiresc's collection. The first part of this work, extensively illustrated with engravings, described antiquities: Christian, Egyptian and Roman; funerary objects; weights and measures; coins; medals; engraved gems; talismans and seals (including a section on Gnostic seals); and lamps.The second part concerned  natural history objects, including birds; animals; fish; fruits; plants; shells; stones; and minerals.

Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.

Subjects: MUSEUMS › Natural History Museums / Wunderkammern
  • 388

Anatomia corporis humani, in qua omnia tam veterum, quam recentiorum anatomicarum inventa methodo nova & intellectu facillima describuntur, ac tabulis aenis repaesentantur.

Leuven (Louvain), Belgium: Aegidium Denique, 1693.

This work was widely used for some years after publication, superseding Bartholin in popularity. Second edition, with supplement, 2 vols., Louvain, 1706-12.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 17th Century, ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration
  • 1687

An estimate of the degrees of mortality of mankind, drawn from curious tables of the births and funerals at the city of Breslaw, with an attempt to ascertain the price of annuities upon lives.

Phil. Trans., 17, 596-610, 1693.

Halley, the astronomer, compiled the “Breslau tables” to show “the proportion of men able to bear arms … to estimate mortality rates, to ascertain the price of annuities upon lives, and was thus the virtual founder of vital statistics” (Garrison). The data on which Halley based his conclusions were supplied to him by Caspar Neumann, a pastor of Breslau. Because Neumann's correspondence with the Royal Society was lost, Halley's paper is the only record of the statistics that Neumann collected.

Subjects: DEMOGRAPHY / Population: Medical Statistics
  • 4298

Lettre écrite à Monsieur le Chevalier Guillaume de Waidegrave …contenant une dissertation physique sur la continuité de plusieurs os, à l’occasion d’une fabrique surprenante d’un tronc de squelette humain, où les vertebres, les côtes, l’os sacrum, & les os des iles, qui naturellement sont distincts & separés, ne font qu’un seul os continu & inseparable.

Paris: Jean Cusson, 1693.

First description of ankylosing spondylitis. The British Museum copy of the title page of this work has been mutilated, apparently deliberately, in two places; the author’s surname may originally have appeared as “O’Connor”, and the last part of the date has been cut away and appears as MDCXCI; other authorities give 1693 as date. The copy presented to the Royal Society of London is also mutilated to read “Connor”. Connor graduated MD in Reims in 1693. Partial translation by Baruch S. and Jean L. Blumberg, "Bernard Connor (1666-1698) and his contribution to the pathology of ankylosing spondylitis," J. Hist. Med., 1958, 13, 349-66.

(This annotation was last revised in April 2015.)

Subjects: ORTHOPEDICS › Diseases of or Injuries to Bones, Joints & Skeleton, RHEUMATOLOGY
  • 299

Synopsis methodica animalium quadrupedum et serpentini generis.

London: S. Smith, 1693.

This work contains the first really systematic classification of animals. Much of its general arrangement of animals survives in modern systems of classification.

Subjects: ZOOLOGY, ZOOLOGY › Classification of Animals, ZOOLOGY › Herpetology
  • 8574

Museum Spenerianum, sive Catalogus Rerum tam artificiosarum, quam naturalium, tam antiquarum, quam recentium, tam exoticarum, quam domesticarum, quas Johannes Jacobus Spener in Academia Hallensi dum viveret, singulari industria & indefesso labore paravit atque collegit. Das Spenerische Cabinet, Oder Kurtze Beschreibung Aller So wol künstlich- als natürlicher, alter, als neuer, fremder, als einheimischer curiösen Sachen. Compiled by Johann Martin Michaelis.

Leipzig: Christoph Fliescher, 1693.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: MUSEUMS › Natural History Museums / Wunderkammern
  • 9541

Description des plantes de l'Amerique.

Paris: De l'Imprimerie Royale, 1693.

Digital facsimile from Botanicus at this link.

  • 98

De sexu plantarum epistola.

Tübingen: Vidua Rommeii, 1694.

First experimental demonstration of the sexuality of plants. Camerer showed that in flowering plants the anthers are male organs, and that the ovary with style and stigma are female, and that pollen is required for the production of viable seeds. Until his work, the continuity of reproductive processes in plants and animals had been a matter of speculation; after it, the scientific study of fertilization and hybridization became possible. Second edition in Valentini's Polychresta exotica (1700). Digital facsimile of the 1700 edition from the Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.

Subjects: BOTANY
  • 1827.1

Histoire générale des drogues….

Paris: Jean-Baptiste Loyson..., 1694.

Pomet became chief druggist to Louis XIV.  His work was considered the most complete materia medica of the time. It also covered non-botanical drugs. Digital facsimile from at this link. English translation, London, 1712 and later editions and revisions.

Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Materia medica / Herbals / Herbal Medicines
  • 8930

Trattado unico da constituiçam pestilencial de Pernambuco, offerecido a ElRey N.S. por ser servido ordenar por seu Governador aos Medicos da America, que assistem aonde ha este contagio, que o compusessem para se conferirem pelos Coripheos da Medicina aos dictames com que he trattada esta pestilencial febre.

Lisbon: Na Officina de Miguel Manescal, Impressor do Principe Nosso Senhor, 1694.

The first scientific description of yellow fever in Brazil by the first European physician to treat the disease in Brazil, and perhaps in all of Latin America. It includes the description of the first autopsy of a yellow fever victim in Brazil. The author received his medical training at Coimbra and practiced for many years in Recife. There was speculation that he may have been a native of that Brazilian city, where he had the opportunity to see the first epidemics of the malady, then referred to as "o mal da bicha". If Ferreira da Rosa was born in Brazil, this would be the first scientific book by a Brazilian author. (My thanks to Richard Ramer for this entry).

  • 10455

Raguaglio historico del contaggio occorso nella provincia di Bari negli anni 1690, 1691 e 1692.

Naples: nella nuova stampa delli socii Dom. Ant. Parrino, e Michele Luigi Mutii, 1694.

Arrieta published two very early disease maps in this work showing locations of plague in the province of Bari, Italy, and his employment of troops to isolate those areas. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link. (Only portions of the two disease maps were visible in the facsimile when I created this entry in April 2018).

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Italy, Cartography, Medical & Biological, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Flea-Borne Diseases › Plague (transmitted by fleas from rats to humans)
  • 10492

Dissertatio inauguralis physico-anatomica de motu musculorum.

Basel: Johann Conrad von Mechel, 1694.

Digital facsimile from at this link. Facsimile edition translated into English, with a related thesis by Bernouilli, by Paul Macquet, assisted by August Zigellar, with an introduction by Troels Kardel as Dissertations on the mechanics of effervescence and fermentation and on the mechanics and movement of the muscles (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1997). (Trans. Am. Phil. Soc., 87, No. 3, 1997).

Subjects: Biomechanics
  • 11975

Elemens de botanique, ou methode pour connoître les plantes.

Paris: De l'Imprimerie Royale, 1694.

Though Tournefort's classification was completely artificial, and neglected some important divisions established by earlier botanists, and was a step backwards in systematics, the text was so clearly written and well structured, and contained so much valuable information on individual species, that it became popular amongst botanists, and nearly all classifications published for the next fifty years were based upon it.

"Tournefort is often credited with being the first to make a clear distinction between genus and species. Though he did indeed cluster the 7,000 plant species that he described into around 700 genera, this was not particularly original. Concepts of genus and species had been framed as early as the 16th century, and Kaspar Bauhin in particular consistently distinguished genera and species. Augustus Quirinus Rivinus had even advocated the use of binary nomenclature shortly before Tournefort's work was published.[2] (Wikipedia article on Joseph Pitton de Tournefort, accessed 3-2020).

Digital facsimile of a hand-colored copy from BnF Gallica at this link,.

Subjects: BOTANY › Classification / Systemization of Plants
  • 12767

Exercitatio anatomica, in qua de cochleis, maxime terrestribus & limacibus, agitur. Omnium dissectiones tabulis aeneis, ad ispsas res assabre incisis, illustrantur.

London: Sam. Smith & Benj. Walford, 1694.

First anatomical supplement to the Historia conchyliorum. This was the first separate work devoted to snails. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: ZOOLOGY › Malacology
  • 1379.1

The anatomy of the brain.

London: Sam. Smith, 1695.

The first book on the brain in the English language, including the first account of the circular venous sinus which Ridley names, and the first English account of a pineal tumor.  In it Ridley gives the first account of the circular venous sinus which he names. He also gives the first English account of a pineal tumour" (Russell).  The copperplates were engraved by van der Gucht from drawings by William Cowper.

Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid, ONCOLOGY & CANCER
  • 5574

La chirurgie complète.

Paris: E. Michallet, 1695.

This “quiz-compend” passed through eighteen editions. Among other things it mentions the use of vitriol buttons for checking hemorrhage and the mode of manual compression used at the Hôtel-Dieu. English translation, London, 1696.

Subjects: SURGERY: General
  • 9867

Order of the hospitalls: The order of the hospitalls of K. Henry the viiith and K. Edward the vith, viz; St. Batholomew's. Christ's. Bridewell. St. Thomas's. By the Maior, Cominaltie, and Citizens of London, Governeurs of the Possessions, Revenues and Goods of the sayd Hospitalls, 1557.

No place identified, but London: [No publisher identified], circa 1695.

First printing of the sixteenth-century statues of the London hospitals. Tradition has it that it was published at the instigation of Samuel Pepys. Hospitals in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries were of more general use than they are today. They were charitable houses erected to provide a range of benefits the poor: schools, places of apprenticeship for poor children, workhouses, prisons, places of resort for the old and disabled as well as lying-inn hospitals and places for the sick and diseased.  

 D'Arcy Power in "Notes on the bibliography of three sixteenth-century English books connected with London Hospitals" (The Library, 4th series) also Foundations of Medical History, 1931, p.124-8, observed of this book: "a casual examination of the book shows no reason to doubt the statement of the year 1557 made on the title page". The clue to the real date of publication is the name "Goodfellow" at the end of the minutes of the 5th printed page. John Goodfellow was town clerk from 1690-1700 and his name is printed here verifying the correct transcription of the sixteenth-century ordinance. In 1681 the court of Alderman, the governing body of the City of London, made a concerted attempt to regain control of the management of the four London hospitals which were becoming more independent. The 1557 ordinances confirmed the Corporation's authority but existed only in manuscript. Copies were therefore printed and distributed to the governors of the hospitals and every member of the Corporation of the City of London. Pepys was governor of the Mathematical School of Christ's Hospital, recently established at his instigation, and it is said that he was responsible for the edition. The statutes contain sections on the number and duties of the governors, the courts governing the hospitals, the rules governing the admission of children and pensioners, of putting the children into service, the examination of single women found to be with child, the officers of President, Treasurer, Surveyor and all the lesser officers of the hospital including the Matron, The Nurses and Keepers of Wards, Butler, Porter, Shoemaker, Schoolmaster, Barber and Beadles. One of the chief officers was the Matron who was responsible for the condition of the women and children in the House and her duties mainly comprised keeping the nurses in order and seeing to the cleanliness and hygiene of the place.   

  • 12768

Exercitatio anatomica altera de buccinis fluviatilibus et marinis. Issued bound with: Exercitatio medicinalis de variolis.

London: Sam. Smith & Benj. Walford, 1695.

The first work was intended as the second anatomical supplement to Lister's Historia conchyliorum.

Subjects: ZOOLOGY › Malacology
  • 13151

Desvios de la naturaleza: O Tratado de el origen de los monstros. A que va anadido vn compendio de curaciones chyrurgicas en monstruosos accidentes.

Lima, Peru: En la Imprenta Real por Joseph de Contreras, y Alvarado impressor del Santo Oficio, 1695.

On conjoined twins, including the record of autopsy of conjoined twins in Lima in 1694. Pedro de Peralta Barnuevo edited work for publication at the request of the Viceroy, Melchor Fernandez Portocarrero. Digital facsimile from US National Library of Medicine at this link

  • 13821

Bibliotheca mathematica & medica Scarbughiana; or, the mathematical and physical parts of the famous library of Sir Charles Scarburgh, Kn.,M.D....All curiously bound. ... will be sold by auction on Monday the 18th of this instant February. By Christopher Bateman, at the Bible and Crown in Middle-row, in Holborn.

London: Christopher Bateman, 1695.

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Catalogues of Physicians' / Scientists' Libraries
  • 2147

An account of the nature, causes, symptoms, and cure of the distempers that are incident in seafaring people. With observations on the diet of the sea-men in his Majesty’s navy.

London: Hugh Newman, 1696.

Cockburn studied medicine at Leiden; he became famous on account of his secret remedy for dysentery. The book is a record of two years spent as a ship’s doctor.

Subjects: MILITARY MEDICINE, SURGERY & HYGIENE › Navy, Maritime Medicine
  • 6703

Theatron in quo maximorum Christiani orbis pontifcum archiatros…spectandos exhibet.

Rome: Typis Francisco de Lazaris, 1696.

The first book on the lives of papal physicians.

Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works), RELIGION & Medicine & the Life Sciences
  • 7580

Museum regium, seu, Catalogus rerum tam naturalium, quam artificialium, quae in basilica bibliothecae augustissimi Daniae Norvegiaeq[ue] monarchae Christiani Quinti, Hafniae asservantur.

Copenhagen: Literis reg. cels. typogr. Joachim Schmetgen, 1696.

Catalogue of the museum of Christian V, King of Denmark by Jacobaeus, physician, traveller, and writer. Digital facsimile from Getty Research Institute, Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: MUSEUMS › Natural History Museums / Wunderkammern
  • 9915

Catalogus plantarum quae in insula Jamaica: Sponte proveniunt, vel vulgò coluntur cum earundem synonymis & locis natalibus, adjectis aliis quibusdam quae in insulis Maderae, Barbados, Nieves, & Sancti Christophori nascuntur, seu Prodromi historiae naturalis Jamaicae pars prima.

London: Impensis D. Brown, 1696.

Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Archive at this link.

  • 12770

Conchyliorum bivalvium utriusque aquae exercitatio anatomica tertia, huic accedit dissertatio medicinalis de calculo humano.

London: Sumptibus authoris impressa, 1696.

Third anatomical supplement to Lister's Historia concyliorum.

Subjects: ZOOLOGY › Malacology
  • 14002

G[othofredi]. G[uillelmi]. L[eibnitii]. Relatio ad inclytam Societatem Leopoldinam Naturae Curiosorum, de novo antidysenterico Americano magnis successibus comprobato.

Hannover & Wolfenbütte: Gottfried Freytag, 1696.

This study of the ipecacuanha root and its effects as a emetic, nauseant, expectorant and dispahoretic, Leibniz issued on what he called "the new American antidysentery drug" after reading about the root in Piso and Marggraf's Historia naturalis Brasilia (1648). The report is considered Leibniz's most comprehensive contribution to medicine. The printer of the work, Freytag, issued it in three different ways: As an appendix to Freytag's edition of Martin Lister's Sex exercitationes medicales de quibusdam morbis chronicis (Frankfurt, 1696), and also in Freytag's early periodical, Miscellanea curiosa, sive Ephemeridum medico-physicarum Germanicarum (Nuremberg, 1696). From that publication a separate pamphlet, or an early journal offprint, was also issued.

Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Ipecacuanha
  • 7756

Horti medici Amstelodamensis rariorum tam orientalis, quam occidentalis Indiae, aliarumque peregrinarum plantarum magno studio ac labore, sumptibus civitatis Amstelodamensis, longâ annorum serie collectarum, descriptio et icones ad vivum æri incisæ. Opus posthumum, latinitate donatum, notisque & observationibus illustratum, à Frederico Ruyschio & Francisco Kiggelario. 2 vols.

Amsterdam: Pieter & Joan II Blaeu, 16971701.

In 1682 Jan Commelin helped establish the Amsterdam Botanical Garden, which introduced many new exotic plants to Europe, collected during the voyages of the Dutch East and West India Companies (VOC and WIC) in the East Indies, the Americas, Africa and the Far East. From these many new herbal remedies were created. Commelin's nephew Caspar Commelin took charge of the garden's foreign plants in 1696, while Frederik Ruysch took charge of the domestic plants. Jan Commelin prepared most of vol. 1, with special emphasis on plants of the East and West Indies. The set was posthumously published by Caspar, who also prepared most of vol. 2, with special emphasis on South African plants. Frederik Ruysch and Frans Kiggelaar provided editorial help and contributed additional notes.  This work includes 225  botanical  engravings after drawings by Jan Moninckx (ca. 1655/56–1714) and his daughter Maria (1673–1757). Digital facsimile from the Biodiviersity Heritage Library at this link.

Subjects: BOTANY › Botanical Gardens, BOTANY › Botanical Illustration, BOTANY › Medical Botany
  • 13413

Hortus Regius Monspeliensis, sive catalogus plantarum quae in Horto Regio Monspeliensi demonstrantur.

Montpellier: Honorat Pech, 1697.

An illustrated catalogue of plants on display in the Royal Botanical Garden of Montpellier. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: BOTANY › Botanical Gardens
  • 385.1

The anatomy of humane bodies, with figures drawn after the life by some of the best masters in Europe.

Oxford: Sam. Smith, 1698.

The largest in format, and most elaborate and beautiful of all 17th century English treatises on anatomy, and also one of the most extraordinary plagiarisms in the entire history of medicine. Cowper purchased sets of the van Gunst copperplates used to illustrate Bidloo’s book from Bidloo's publisher apparently without Bidloo's permission, and issued them under his own name with an improved text in English, and a new illustrated appendix. For the frontispiece Cowper had a small printed flap with his own name pasted over Bidloo’s own engraved title and name. All of this was apparently done without Bidloo's permission, so even though Cowper credited Bidloo with the plates, Bidloo accused Cowper of plagiarism and published the record of the case in the following polemic: Gulielmus Cowper, criminis literarii citatus, coram tribunali nobiliss., ampliss: Societatis Britanno-Regiae, Leiden, 1700.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 17th Century, ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration, ART & Medicine & Biology
  • 3166

A treatise of the asthma.

London: R. Wilkins, 1698.

Floyer provided the first clear descriptions of cases of bronchial asthma. Floyer himself suffered from asthma for over 30 years. He recognized the influence of heredity in asthma. The above includes (p. 239) an important early account of emphysema, from a post mortem on a broken-winded horse.

  • 5181

De ipecacuanha novo Gallorum antidysenterico. Resp. C[hristophe] F[riedrich] Kneussel.

Giessen: typ. Mülleri, 1698.

There is evidence that amoebic dysentery was known to Hippocrates. The history of treatment begins with the use of ipecacuanha, the dried root of Cephaelis ipecacuanha, a plant from Brazil.  This was first mentioned as a remedy in Purchas’s Pilgrimes, 1625. 

Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Amoebiasis, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Ipecacuanha
  • 7124

A catalogue of the library of the late learned Dr. Francis Bernard....Which will be sold by auction at the doctor's late dwelling house in Litttle Britain; the sale to begin on Tuesday, Oct. 4, 1698.

London: Catalogues to be sold at Mr. Aylmers...., 1698.

The most extensive library sold at auction in London during the seventeenth century, with almost 15,000 lots, of which only part was medical. Bernard was Physician to James II.

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Catalogues of Physicians' / Scientists' Libraries
  • 7636

Catalogus van alle de principaalste rariteiten die op de anatomie-kamer binnen de stadt Leyden vertoont werden.

Leiden: Huberti vander Boxe, 1698.

This was the first published catalogue of the anatomical museum of the University of Leiden. Several later editions of this version were published in Dutch; a later edition was compiled by Franciscus Schuyl (No. 11314). Blanken's edition was translated into English as A catalogue of all the cheifest rarities in the publick theater and anatomie-hall of the University of Leyden which are so set in order that all may easily bee found in their places. Printed in Leiden by Hubert vander Boxe, 1704. Digital facsimile of the English translation from Google Books at this link; of the 1697 Dutch edition at this link.

Subjects: MUSEUMS › Medical, Anatomical & Pathological
  • 8592

A journey to Paris in the year 1698.

London: Jacob Tonson, 1698.

Includes observations of natural history collections, estates and libraries of Parisians, and commentary on science, art, food, wine, medicine, and more. Late in 1697, William Bentinck, Lord Portland, was sent on a diplomatic mission to Paris, and Lister accompanied him as physician. Lister's duties left him ample time to meet and talk with other intellectuals, to see their collections and gardens, and to explore the city. Digital facsimile of the first of three 1699 editions from the Internet Archive at this link. Edited reprint, with annotations, a life of Lister and a Lister bliography, by Raymond Phineas Stearns (Urbana, IL, 1967). 

Subjects: NATURAL HISTORY, Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientsts
  • 10657

De motu cordis adversaria analytica.

Montpellier: Apud Joannem Martel, 1698.

In this pioneering experimental study of coronary function, describing the first experimental tying of a coronary vessel, Chirac demonstrated that cardiac arrest occurs in response to coronary ligation. “A special position must be allocated to the French physician Pierre Chirac for having performed the first experimental ligation of a coronary artery in a dog. His book De motu cordis (1698) is an early attempt at experimental pathology with regard to the coronary vessels. Likewise there is much information on the fibers of the heart; some ideas are also expressed as to measuring the heart’s power . . . the blood volume, too, was estimated” (Leibowitz, The History of Coronary Heart Disease, p. 305). Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

  • 11471

Paradisus Batavus, continens plus centum plantas affabrè aere incisas & descriptionibus illustratas. Cui accesit catalogus plantarum, quas pro tomis nondum editis, delineandas curaverat Paulus Hermannus, M. D. In Academia Lugduno-Batava nuper medicinae ac botanices professor. Opus posthumum.

Leiden: Abraham Elzevier, 1698.

Catalogue of the plants in the Hortus Botanicus Leiden, posthumously edited from Hermann's unpublished manuscript, and reproducing 111 of Hermann's botanical illustrations, by William Sherard. Digital facsimile from Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid at this link.

Subjects: BOTANY › Botanical Gardens, BOTANY › Botanical Illustration, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Netherlands
  • 1214

An account of two new glands and their excretory ducts, lately discovered in human bodies.

Phil. Trans., 1700, 21, 364-69, 1699.

Cowper’s description of the glands which bear his name. He was forestalled in their discovery by Jean Méry.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 17th Century, Genito-Urinary System
  • 1688

Several essays in political arithmetic.

London: Robert Clavel and Henry Mortlock, 1699.

A pioneer statistician, Petty took the first census of Ireland. He was Professor of Anatomy at Oxford and later Graham Professor of Music. SeeNo. 1686.

Subjects: DEMOGRAPHY / Population: Medical Statistics
  • 153
  • 300

Orang-outang, sive homo sylvestris: Or, the anatomy of a pygmie compared with that of a monkey, an ape, and a man.

London: T. Bennet, D. Brown, 1699.

The earliest work of importance in comparative morphology. Tyson compared the anatomy of man and monkeys and between the two he placed the chimpanzee, which he regarded as the typical pygmy. This was the origin of the idea of a “missing link” in the ascent of man from the apes. Facsimile reprint with introduction, 1966. Biography of Tyson by Ashley Montagu, Philadelphia, 1943.


Subjects: COMPARATIVE ANATOMY, EVOLUTION, ZOOLOGY › Illustration, ZOOLOGY › Mammalogy › Primatology
  • 7965

The dispensary: A poem. In six cantos.

London: John Nutt, 1699.

An aggressive criticism of quack medicines, apothecaries who produced them, and physicians who prescribed them.

Subjects: LITERATURE / Philosophy & Medicine & Biology › Poetry , PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS, Quackery
  • 13876

Voyages de François Bernier ... contenant la description des états du grand mogol. Où il est traité des richesses, des forces, de la justice, & des causes principales de la decadence des etats de l'Asie, & de plusieurs évenemens considerables. Et où l'on voit comment l'or & l'argent, après avoir circulé dans le monde, passent dans l'Hindoustan, d'où ils ne reviennent plus.

Amsterdam: Paul Marret, 1699.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists › History of Voyages & Travels by Physicians....